The lost tools of learning




  • Excited about learning
  • Enjoys games, stories, songs, projects
  • Short attention span
  • Wants to touch, taste, feel, smell and see
  • Imaginative and creative
  • Easily memorizes

In the Classroom
Guided discovery, explore; find things; use lots of tactile items; sing; play games; chant; recite; color, draw, paint; build; use body movements; short creative projects; show and tell; drama; hear/read/tell stories; field trips.


Grades K-5


  • Excited about new, interesting facts
  • Likes to explain, figure out, talk
  • Likes collections and organizing items
  • Likes clever chants and rhymes
  • Can assimilate another language well

In the Classroom
Lots of hands-on work, projects; field trips; make collections, displays, models; integrate subjects through above means; immersive language; recitations, memorization; drills, games.


Grades 6-8


  • Still excitable but needs challenges
  • Critical, enjoys debate
  • Wants to know “behind the scenes” facts
  • Curious about why for most things

In the Classroom
Time lines, charts, maps (visual materials); debates, persuasive reports; drama re-enactments, formal logic; oral/written presentations; guest speakers, trips.


Grades 9-12


  • Idealistic. Interested in justice and fairness
  • Moving toward special interests or topics
  • Can synthesize and do more independent work
  • Desires to express feelings, own ideas
  • Concerned with how others view them

In the Classroom
Drama, oral presentations; guide research in major areas with goal of synthesis; speeches, debates; give responsibilities, e.g., working with younger students; in-depth field trips, even overnight; worldview discussions.

Grammar – Learning the fundamental facts and rules of each subject

Children at this age have a unique ability to learn, recall and retain material. At this foundational stage of student learning, our focus is on memorizing and reciting new information. Utilizing effective techniques, including rhymes, songs, memory motion and visual aids, our teachers introduce information in math, science, Bible, reading, spelling, history, art, music, and eventually Latin.

Logic – Learning how particular facts are related in each subject

As youth begin to develop a fundamental knowledge of various subject matters, they become more transparent in expressing their opinions. Middle school children have the natural tendency to question and debate what they are taught. Our teachers nurture this tendency through guided conversation to help students use reasoned thinking to arrive at sound conclusions. This formative opportunity allows them to evaluate their own arguments before engaging in discussion with differing points of view.

Rhetoric – Clearly expressing grammar and logic components in each subject

The culmination of classical education is to intentionally and extensively practice the expression of the knowledge and understanding that has been gained in earlier years. Teachers help students hone their communicative skills and challenge their assumptions in order to promote further consideration. Students learn to engage, both in verbal and written form, in discussions that are both edifying to society and glorifying to God.